Loevy referred to a similar point with regard to sections 4 to 8 of the agreement, recalling that the British and French practiced “Ottoman colonial development” and that this experience served as a roadmap for subsequent war negotiations.  While Khalidi examined the negotiations of Great Britain and France in 1913 and 1914 on the Homs-Baghdad railway line, as well as their agreements with Germany, in other regions, as a “clear basis” for their subsequent spheres of influence under the agreement.  Western commentators and elsewhere use the agreement to explain the current unrest in the Arab world. For them, it is a “blowback” – the unintended and damaging effects of imperialist interference in the region. For a period of twenty years, the existing Turkish tariff remains in effect in all blue and red zones as well as in zones (a) and b) and there is no increase in tariffs or conversions of value at certain rates, unless agreed between the two powers. After the outbreak of war in the summer of 1914, the Allies – Britain, France and Russia – had much discussion about the future of the Ottoman Empire, which is now fighting on the side of Germany and the central powers, and its vast area in the Middle East, Arabia and southern Europe. In March 1915, Britain signed a secret agreement with Russia, whose plans for the territory of the Empire had prompted the Turks to join Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1914. Under its terms, Russia would annex the Ottoman capital, Constantinople, and retain control of the Dardanelles (the extremely important strait that connects the Black Sea to the Mediterranean) and the Gallipoli Peninsula, the target of a major Allied military invasion, which began in April 1915. In exchange, Russia would accept British claims to other territories of the former Ottoman Empire and Central Persia, including the oil-rich region of Mesopotamia. More than a year after the agreement with Russia, British and French representatives, Sir Mark Sykes and François Georges Picot, drafted another secret agreement on the future prey of the Great War.
Picot represented a small group determined to ensure control of Syria for France; For his part, Sykes asked the UK to compensate for the influence in the region. The agreement did not allow, to a large extent, the future growth of Arab nationalism, which the British government and army wanted to use at the same time for their advantage vis-à-vis the Turks. Following the Sazonov Paleologist Agreement, Russia should also benefit from Western Armenia alongside Constantinople and the Turkish Strait, already promised under the 1915 Constantinople Agreement.  Italy was closed to the Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne Convention in 1917 and received South Anatolia.  The Palestinian region, whose territory is smaller than later compulsory Palestine, should be under “international administration.”