This agreement is the result of a renegotiation between the member states of the North American Free Trade Agreement from 2017 to 2018, which informally agreed on the terms of the new agreement on 30 September 2018 and formally on 1 October.  Proposed by US President Donald Trump, the USMCA was signed on November 30, 2018 by Mr. Trump, Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto and Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau as a secondary event to the G20 summit in Buenos Aires in 2018. A revised version was signed on December 10, 2019 and ratified by all three countries, with final ratification (Canada) taking place on March 13, 2020, just before the postponement of the Canadian Parliament due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Fox News reported on December 9, 2019, that negotiators from the three countries have reached an agreement on implementation, paving the way for a final agreement within 24 hours and ratification by all three sides before the end of the year. Mexico has agreed to the imposition of a $16 per hour minimum wage for Mexican autoworkers by a “neutral” third party. Mexico, which imports all of its aluminum, has also objected to the provisions on U.S. steel and aluminum content in automotive components.  On December 10, 2019, a revised USMCA agreement was reached by the three countries. On January 29, 2020, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs Chrystia Freeland introduced the USMCA C-4 Implementation Act in the House of Commons and passed first reading without a recorded vote. On February 6, the bill passed the House of Commons by a vote of 275 to 28 at second reading, with the Bloc Québécois voting against and all other parties, and it was referred to the Standing Committee on International Trade.    On February 27, 2020, the committee voted to refer the bill back to the plenary for third reading, without amendment. = = – The Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) is a trade agreement between these parties.
The USMCA replaced the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Two new assessments come from the think-tank community that applies traditional analyses of trade liberalization agreements to the USMCA. Economists Dan Ciuriak, Ali Dadkhah and Jingliang Xiao estimated that Canadian GDP could fall by 0.4 per cent below the USMCA, in a paper published by toronto`s C.D. Howe Institute. In Washington, Jeffrey Schott, of the Peterson Institute for International Economics, argued that the USMCA was a bad deal and called on House Democrats to vote against implementation. . . .